At Water Technology, we pride ourselves on an advanced understanding of the physical processes of waterways and the factors that influence them. We use our understanding to design methodologies that give clients exactly what they need.

We specialise in, and are well recognised for our skills in fluvial geomorphology, ecology, hydraulic modelling, strategic waterway management, design and construction support for waterway rehabilitation, GIS analysis and community consultation.

Our successful delivery of countless integrated and multi-disciplinary waterway management projects throughout Australia is based on these skills and understanding.

We have extensive experience in strategic waterway planning, and a thorough understanding of current best-practice waterway management activities, their limitations, and their implications on stream processes and waterways stability.

  • Integrated Waterway Management
  • Geomorphology
  • River Stability Assessment & Design
  • Water Quality
  • Ecology
  • Hydraulics & Hydrology
  • Fish Passage and Fishway Design
  • Fluvial & Estuarine Process Investigations
  • Strategic River Health Planning
  • Environmental Flow Assessment
  • Monitoring Program Design & Implementation
salt inception
Murray-Darling Basin

Salt Interception Schemes (SIS) form a key component of managing salinity within the River Murray. The construction of the schemes began in the late 1980s in response to increasing salinities in the River Murray that were attributed to groundwater mounds beneath irrigation districts and irrigation drainage schemes. By pumping groundwater, these borefields reduce the hydraulic gradient that drives saline groundwater towards the floodplain and river.  The removal of salt before it reaches the river reduces salinity related costs, is cheaper than desalinisation and ensures water quality is appropriate for end users. The schemes are also proving to have long-term ecological benefits for River Murray floodplain tree health.

We have a long and continuous work history in the investigation, design, construction and optimisation of groundwater management infrastructure in the competitively tendered field of borefield design.  Members of the Water Technology team have designed and built all but two of the schemes constructed since 1988.

Salt Interception Schemes undergo regular reviews to assess performance.  The most recent of these reviews of SIS designed and constructed by AWE staff indicate they are continuing to achieve the design targets for the clients.

Snow Creek Weir Mitta Mitta
North East Catchment Management Authority
Mitta Mitta, Victoria

Snowy Creek Weir Fishway Passage

The Snowy Creek Weir was constructed across Snowy Creek in the 1970’s to provide a swimming hole for the local community. The weir is recognised as an important asset to the local community, drawing tourists who make use of the swimming area and complementary facilities and services. However, the Snowy Creek Weir is also known to impact on the movements of fish within Snowy Creek. Provision of fish passage through the Snowy Creek weir structure would allow fish passage through the entire Snowy Creek system as there are no other man-made barriers present.


Snowy Creek Fishway - Bathymetry Snowy Creek Fishway - Current Speed Snowy Creek Fishway - Surface Elevation Snowy Creek Fishway - Total water depth

Paper – 13th Hydraulics in Water Engineering Conference – Improving fishway design through the use of detailed 2D and 3D hydrodynamic modelling (PDF)

 Key Services Provided:

  • 2-D and 3-D hydrodynamic modelling
  • Fishway assessment and design


McQuades Bend Crossing after fishway passage complete
North East CMA
Warby-Ovens National Park

Completed Fishway Passages at McQuades Bend and Frost Crossing, Ovens River

Video: North East Catchment Management Authority

The Warby-Ovens National Park, 240 km north east of Melbourne and 10 km west of Wangaratta provides an important connection between the alpine foothills, the Murray River and floodplain. In 2012, two entry points to the Warby-Ovens National Park were impacted by flooding. The gravel and rock crossings at McQuades Bend and Frost Crossing required upgrading, this presented an opportunity for the North East CMA to improve the waterway connectivity for fish as the crossings were a barrier to fish migration.

Improving fish passage

Water Technology, working in conjunction with Gordon Gibson Nominees and the Arthur Rylah Institute, was involved in the preparation of detailed design plans for the construction of the fishways, all the relevant approvals and construction to enable fish passage at Frosts Crossing and McQuades Bend Track at low flows, across the Ovens River floodplain.

The objectives of the project were to provide:

  • Improved fish passage and floodplain connectivity at low flows at Frosts Crossing and McQuades Bend Track.
  • Detailed design and construction to enable fish passage at low flows across the Ovens River floodplain at the two project locations.
  • An improved crossing arrangement on Frosts Crossing and McQuades Bend Track that minimises the alteration to flow characteristics surrounding the crossing, minimises erosion potential surrounding the crossing, minimises maintenance requirements and provides for fish passage in consultation with Parks Victoria.
  • Construction, site layout and supervision for both fishways at Frosts and McQuades Crossings, to be carried out in consultation with North East CMA and Parks Vic.
Before fishwayAfter fishway construction
McQuades BendMcQuades Bend Crossing BeforeMcQuades Bend Crossing after fishway construction
Frost CrossingFrost Crossing before fishwayFrost Crossing after fishway construction

An article on these crossing is available in Water Technology’s Waterlines

In the news:

River regulation and the presence of instream barriers are known to impact natural river processes and the movement of fish. This can produce environmental conditions that benefit some of the most invasive species on the planet, such as the common carp, and interrupt natural migratory and breeding cycles of native fish.

The Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in eastern Australia has over 3,600 instream barriers, which generally consist of dams, weirs, and flow regulators. Recognising the impacts of these barriers on native fish, the Murray-Darling Basin Authority (MDBA) instigated a fishway construction program (the Sea to Hume program) in 2001 to mitigate the impacts of major instream barriers on fish movement. This ambitious program has now re-established longitudinal connectivity to some 2,235 km of the Murray River, catering for the migration of native fish species within the MDB.

Catchment Management Authorities, water authorities and councils are now working towards a similar goal, to re-establish longitudinal and lateral connectivity at instream barriers within their respective jurisdictions. The North East CMA specifically is aiming to improve fish passage at a number of instream barriers by constructing fishways and fish friendly structures to facilitate passage along the Ovens and Mitta Mitta Rivers. Both riverine systems are known for their recreational fish species, such as brown trout, Murray cod and golden perch, all of which require unhindered movement to complete various aspects of their life-cycle. These riverine systems also harbour threated species such as Trout Cod and Macquarie perch, while Blackfish and various Galaxias species are also present.

Water Technology has designed fishways at three locations on the Ovens River (Tea Garden Weir, Frosts Crossing and McQuade’s Bend crossing) and one on the Snowy Creek at Mitta Mitta. The development of the designs required Water Technology to work in multidisciplinary teams and consult with local communities to ensure that their needs are also met with the design of the fishways.

Update to the ‘tombstone’ fishway

The North East CMA has produced a podcast series on the Lower Floodplains. The third episode, “Managing the Lower Ovens for the future”, features Water Technology’s Waterways and Ecology Group Manager, Jamie Kaye, talking about the Frost Crossing ‘tombstone’ fishway design (from the 15:16 mark) and the constraints to the site.

Ovens River Tea Gardens Weir
North East CMA
Ovens River at Tea Gardens Creek

Ovens River Fishway Design at Tea Gardens Creek Weir

River regulation and the presence of instream barriers are known to impact natural river processes and the movements of fish. This can often facilitate environmental conditions that benefits some of the most invasive species on the planet i.e. common carp and interrupts the natural migratory and breeding cycles of native fish.

The Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), in eastern Australia, has over 3,600 instream barriers which generally consist of dams, weirs, and regulators. Recognising the impacts of these barriers on native fish, the Murray-Darling Basin Authority (MDBA) instigated a fishway construction program (termed the Sea to Hume program) in 2001, designed to mitigate the impacts of major instream barriers on fish movement. This ambitious program has now re-established longitudinal connectivity to 2,235 km of the Murray River, catering for the migration of native fish species within the MDB.

Similarly, Catchment Management Authorities, water authorities and councils are now working towards a similar goal, to re-establish longitudinal and lateral connectivity at instream barriers within their respective jurisdictions. The North East CMA specifically, is aiming to improve fish passage at a number of instream barriers by constructing fishways and fish friendly structures that facilitate passage along the Ovens and Mitta Mitta Rivers. Both riverine systems are known for their recreational fish species, such as brown trout, Murray cod and golden perch, and all require unhindered movement to complete various aspects of their life-cycles. These riverine systems also harbour threatened species such as trout cod and Macquarie perch, while blackfish and various galaxias species are also present.

Ovens River Tea Garden Creek Weir Fishway Design

The Tea Gardens Creek Weir on the Ovens River delivers irrigation, stock and domestic water to entitlement holders on the Tea Garden Creek system. The weir is owned and operated by Goulburn Murray Water and was updated in 2016 to extend the weirs operating life and support their water supply objectives. While the update in 2016 met distribution needs it remained a barrier to fish movement.

It was identified that a fishway was required to improve fish connectivity end ecological function. The new fishway design was required to meet the following core criteria:

  • Achieve fish passage without compromising weir functionality
  • Meet with Goulburn Murray Water and community needs regarding safety in design
  • Be resilient to flood events (including total submersion)
  • Minimise future maintenance requirements; and
  • Where the final design allows, include provision for PIT-tag reader installation for monitoring fish movement through the structure.
BeforeRock Ramp Fishway Design
Teas Gardens FishwayOvens River Tea Gardens Weir Fishway Design
Ovens River,  Tea Garden Creek Weir. Ovens River, Tea Gardens Weir
Water Technology has design a partial width rock ramp
fishway to replace the right side of the weir.

Water Technology has designed fishways in three locations on the Ovens River (Tea Garden Weir, Frosts Crossing and McQuades Bend crossing) and one on the Snowy Creek at Mitta Mitta. The development of the designs required Water Technology to work in multidisciplinary teams and consult with the local communities to ensure that their needs are also met with the design of the fishway.

Working on these projects Water Technology has utilised the following skillsets:

  • Waterway Engineering
  • Fluvial Geomorphology
  • Vegetation Ecology
  • Fishway Detail Design
  • Project Management
  • Community Consultation
Condamine River, Queensland - stream management
Queensland Government. Department of Natural Resources, Mines and Energy

The Queensland Department of Natural Resources, Mines and Energy is undertaking the production of the streambank, in-channel (instream) and riparian rehabilitation guidelines for Queensland (the Guidelines).

The focus of the Guidelines is to be on the riverine and climatic conditions experienced in Queensland’s watercourses, wetlands and riparian zones. The work will consist of the development of a framework and classification system that can be applied to identify the most appropriate rehabilitation techniques to use in common situations including landscape rehabilitation and recovery from flood or tropical cyclone events.

We need feedback from Queensland NRMs, River Improvement Trusts, Local Government and industry representatives. Your help is needed. Please complete these short surveys to provide some initial feedback to assist the guideline development process.

Queensland stream rehabilitation guidelines


It is important for the development of these guidelines that we have a good representation of responses from across Queensland. Having your input will assist in how the guidelines best meet the sector needs. This is an initial survey with further consultation and engagement activities to be undertaken.

The Guidelines will cover the principles of streambank, riparian and in-channel rehabilitation and restoration, including stream classification, restoration objectives, management techniques, best management practice and incorporate demonstrable outcomes and operational case studies. The Guidelines will include a description of the key principles required in relation to restoration, best management practice and rehabilitation for flood and tropical cyclone damage recovery and provide a system or method to prioritise rehabilitation within a system. Where necessary the guidelines will reference existing Queensland guidance, legislation and standards.

The Guidelines Project Manager is Dr Michael Cheetham, Principal Scientist (Geomorphologist) at Water Technology.

For more information contact Michael or Luke McPhail on 07 3105 1460.

West Gippsland CMA
Gippsland Lakes, Vic

The Latrobe River estuary is located at the interface between the Latrobe catchment and the Gippsland Lakes. It is a part of the Gippsland Lakes complex, recognised as a wetland of international significance. Upstream freshwater reserves have been set aside for ecological flows, but the environmental flow requirements were unknown. The water resources are also shared between agricultural, industrial, and domestic use. Water Technology was engaged to address the gap developing environmental flow recommendations for the lower Latrobe River estuary.

1D and 3D models were developed to characterize the hydrodynamic regime of the estuary. The 1D model represented river and floodplain flows and was used to examine the interactions between the river and the floodplains. The 3D model was used to provide more detailed information about the hydrodynamic properties of in-stream flows, including interactions between flows, lake levels, and salt wedges.

Malley CMA / Murray Darling Basin Committee
Murray River, VIC

The Living Murray Initiative and associated Environmental Works and Measures Program were established to improve the health of the River Murray system through recovery of water and effective distribution to the environment.

Water Technology has been involved in a number of eco-hydraulic projects through these initiatives to develop and assess water management options for improved environmental watering.

Water Technology undertook hydrodynamic modelling to assess proposed works and measures to significantly enhance the existing watering regime of the wetland systems around Lindsay, Mulcra and the Wallpolla Islands. This involved comparing flood extents based on historical, current and proposed infrastructure management. Prior to the development of environmental watering infrastructure, Water Technology undertook advection-dispersion model, investigated rates of mixing and turn-over times in the upper reaches of the system.

North Central CMA / Murray Darling Basin Committee
Gunbower Forest, VIC / NSW

As part of Victoria’s Murray Darling Basin Plan Sustainable Diversion Limit Offset Works and Measure’s Program, the North Central Catchment Management Authority co-ordinated investigations to deliver environmental water to the Ramsar listed Gunbower Forest in an efficient and sustainable manner.

The objective of these investigations was to assess hydrological, ecological and structural feasibility of a range of water management options to deliver water to the Gunbower Forest.

Water Technology developed a number of 1D-2D hydraulic models of the system to evaluate the potential water management options and improve knowledge of the floodplain system, and worked closely with the CMA and ecologists to develop concepts of infrastructure and watering requirements for various target sites.

Brisbane City Council
Boondall, QLD

Nudgee landfill was formed adjacent to the Boondall Wetlands in 1976. The site was closed in 2002 with remediation completed in 2006. Water Technology staff were members of a team invited to undertake an ecological and water quality study to assess the influence of the Nudgee Landfill on the Boondall wetlands (now a RAMSAR listed site). The study included review of all existing monitoring and modelling data, as well as the design and implementation of targeted soil, water and biological monitoring program over a 2 year period. Automatic water quality and depth sensors (with data loggers) were used extensively. Manual sampling and laboratory analysis was also undertaken.

The Boondall Wetlands water quality monitoring sites were influenced by a number of interacting processes such as rainfall, tidal flushing, time of year and distance from Moreton Bay. Further, the impact of these processes on site water quality varies depending on the site and water quality parameter. Therefore, while the “raw” monitoring data may give a precise measure of water quality at the particular moment of sampling, the incomplete sampling coverage across all sites and times, along with the confounding effects of these various processes, meant that the raw data alone did not provide a complete description of water quality variation over time either at a site or between sites. Advanced statistical analysis was used to model and isolate the various physical, chemical and biological processes occurring within the study area.

The Boondall Wetlands have been subject to numerous historical changes apart from the construction of the landfill. These include, land clearing, drain construction, and waterway dredging. The study was able to isolate and identify the effect of natural and anthropogenic impacts on the wetlands.

East Gippsland CMA
Snowy River, NSW

This study was prepared for the East Gippsland CMA in June 2011 and involved a detailed hydraulic assessment of the impacts of the Snowy River Rehabilitation Project on the river and floodplain. The study incorporated an iterative hydraulic and geomorphic approach to assessing the implications of the river rehabilitation and also to assess risks associated with potential avulsion sites. A two-dimensional hydraulic model was developed to spatially resolve the effects of changes in vegetation communities along the floodplain and riparian zones on flood levels across the study area. The assessment also considered the effect of in-channel bars under a range of flow conditions, with the results indicating a high level of correlation between increased flood level and channel bar formation. Sensitivity testing of the hydraulic model also revealed that the inclusion of bed scour in the model is a critical assumption, as if the bed does not scour through the system during flood events, water levels and overbank flows are expected to be dramatically raised in a number of reaches, with follow-on effects downstream.

Goulburn Broken
Yea, Vic

Water Technology, in collaboration with Moroka, was invited to produce a report for the Goulburn Broken Catchment Management Authority on an investigation of the fluvial geomorphology of the Yea and Acheron Rivers. The report is centred on the main stems of the Yea and Acheron Rivers in the settled parts of the valleys and populated areas of the Murrindindi and Steavenson Rivers. The purpose of the investigation and report is to:

• provide an understanding of the underlying physical processes that control the size, shape and location of the river channels; and
• allow these physical processes to be considered as part of developing future river management strategies and as part of day-to-day river management decisions.

This investigation dealt primarily with the physical aspects of the rivers and floodplains. In overview, the investigation confirms that while there will always be particular instances of erosion or flooding that conflict with expectations for the river, most sections of the rivers are quite stable at a management timescale compared to many other Victorian Rivers. Areas where the potential for conflict between geomorphic processes and land use expectations is greatest are in the Yea River from the vicinity of the Murrindindi confluence downstream to Yea, and the Steavenson River downstream of Marysville.

City of Gold Coast
Gold Coast, QLD

On behalf of City of Gold Coast (CoGC), Water Technology undertook an expert technical assessment (geomorphic condition assessment) and stakeholder consultation, with consideration of stream health condition, primary values and issues within the catchment areas. The outcomes of the assessment were used to prepare an Erosion Management Plan. The Erosion Management Plan aims were to:

  • Identify the erosion processes occurring within each catchment,
  • Outline general management techniques for each erosion process using specific examples from each catchment.

The technical assessment focussed on Wongawallan Creek, Guanaba Creek and Tamborine Creek with reference to present day processes of erosion/deposition, historic geomorphologic change, and likely morphologic trajectories (future changes) both under normal conditions and from flood events. The Plan was developed using various recognised stream management techniques including some aspects of RiverStyles® framework (Brierley & Fryirs, 2005). The management rationale and recommendations provided in the plan are assisting the City of Gold Coast to plan and implement river health projects, mitigate risks and improve the environmental condition of the Wongawallan and Guanaba stream networks.

Through and assessment of the creeks historic and current condition and processes, the likely future trajectory of the creek was assessed. The creeks are frequently controlled by bedrock, with bedrock bars and other exposed bedrock features (channel, bank, and floodplain) observed throughout the catchments. Increased storm frequency (or intensity) will exacerbate existing issues particularly where eroded bank faces are exposed. However, erosion issues within both catchments are acute issues, not widespread.

A vast majority of the stream network in both the Wongawallan and Guanaba Creek catchments were found to be in very good condition, showing high stability, in-channel complexity and resilience. However, active erosion processes are evident within both catchments. A majority of the observed erosion was associated with natural stream processes, exacerbated by land use changes, road crossings and changes in climate.

BHP Mitsui Coal Pty Ltd (BMC)

Water Technology (WT) were commissioned by BHP Mitsui Coal Pty Ltd (BMC) to develop a diversion strategy at the South Walker Creek (SWC) mine to secure mining access to the Mulgrave coal resource area associated with the Kemmis Pit. The Kemmis Pit area represents one of the northern operation areas at the SWC mine and the Mulgrave coal resource is understood to be a high value coal reserve. The Mulgrave coal reserve is transected by Carborough and Walker Creeks. Carborough and Walker Creeks are major tributary systems of the larger Bee Creek catchment, which ultimately flows to the Fitzroy River via the Isaac and Mackenzie Rivers to discharge to the Coral Sea in Rockhampton. The project scope has included the identification of the preferred creek diversion options; Surface water assessments involving hydrological and hydraulic analysis; and fluvial geomorphologic assessments of the waterway systems.

In total, some twenty diversion channel alignment options were identified as part of the study. The alignment options considered a range of scenarios involving channel length, channel grade, diversion take-off and re-connection locations, etc. The diversion options also included short term versus long-term diversion strategies, with the short-term options generally representing the shorter length diversion options. The alignments reflect the nature of the key controls at the site and specifically the local topographical conditions whereby the options have been structured to minimise excavation quantities. The initial diversion options were considered by BMC’s Project Steering Committee and a process of shortlisting of the options was undertaken. Conceptual diversion channel arrangements including channel form and shape and earthwork quantities for five shortlisted options were prepared for consideration by BMC. Two preferred diversion options were ultimately chosen to proceed with more rigorous assessments.


Expert staff from Water Technology’s Brisbane office joined the McArthur River Mine Independent Monitor team, under the management of ERIAS Group. The Independent Monitor (IM) team includes experts in the fields of groundwater, geochemistry, hydrology, hydraulics, ecology, geotechnics, geomorphology, water quality, soil and sediment quality, and mine closure. In addition to ERIAS Group, the team consists of six consultancies from across Australia:


  • Water Technology
  • Pell Sullivan Meynick
  • Groundwater Resource Management
  • Environmental Geochemistry International
  • Low Ecological Services
  • Integrated Design Solutions

The IM was first established in 2007 with the aim to assess the environmental performance of the McArthur River Mine and the Department of Mines and Energy. The IM was renewed this year under the management of ERIAS Group. The assessment is based on the review of:

  • Environmental assessments and monitoring activities undertaken by the mine operator (MRM Pty Ltd).
  • Environmental assessments and audits undertaken by the mine regulator, the Department of Mines and Energy (DME).

This is a five-year project for the new team, beginning in 2014 with a site visit to familiarise the team with the Mine, DME and associated staff. The Independent Monitor Audit Report for 2014 (2013-2014 operational period) was released in October 2014 and is available for download at the MRM-Staging Website.


The Ovens River floodplain is one of the many within the Murray-Darling Basin that has been subject to anthropogenic changes, negatively impacting on the condition of floodplain and wetland environmental assets. The lower Ovens River and its floodplain wetlands are in much better condition than many other rivers in the basin due to the absence of major water storages and extractions from the upper catchment, with less impact on the magnitude, frequency and duration of flooding. However it still has a number of issues to manage; namely vegetation clearance, pest species, the operation of the Murray River and backwatering from Lake Mulwala, and the construction of levees, channel banks and roads, some of which have disconnected wetlands from the river.

The Lower Ovens Connectivity Study was a landmark project which integrated complex floodplain hydraulics, catchment hydrology, advanced spatial analysis, ecological assessments and environmental outcomes. Detailed 1D/2D hydrodynamic models were used to understand the flood behaviour across the floodplain at a range of different magnitude flow events. Extensive condition assessments of the significant ecological assets within the floodplain were also conducted. The study identified and mapped over 380 potential barriers to flow and produced a number of highly valuable datasets which relate areas such as wetland connectivity, frequency of wetland inundation and ecological condition that could serve as a benchmark for floodplain managers across the Murray-Darling Basin. The knowledge gained from the study was incorporated into a geodatabase that linked flood behaviour to connectivity and ecological assets within the floodplain.

The study concluded that much of the lower Ovens floodplain is in excellent condition and that there are few barriers which significantly reduce wetland connectivity, with 90% of the wetlands found to be inundated on average at least every two years. The approach developed in this study could easily be applied to other river systems across the country to improve understanding of the ecological condition and connectivity of floodplains and improve management of key environmental assets. The study has developed a number of tools that will significantly expand the North East CMA’s capacity to engage key stakeholders in identifying options for improving the management of unregulated flows to key environmental assets through the design and management of environmental infrastructure.

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